HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN

The most popular holiday in Great Britain is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway present the city of London with a big tree. Then it stands in Trafalgar Square. All the streets are beautifully decorated.

Before Christmas, children and some singers go from house to house. They sing carols HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN, traditional Christmas songs. Very often they collect money for charity. At home a lot of children hang stockings at the end of their beds; they believe that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and fill the stockings with toys and sweets. Christmas is a family HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN holiday. Relatives usually meet for the big Christmas dinner with turkey and Christmas pudding. Everyone gives and receives presents.

On Christmas Eve it is very important to give much food to the cattle or at least to your dog or cat. It will mean that not only they but HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN you too will have enough food in the coming year. Most Christmas and New Year's food superstitions depend on having some kind of food that swells up when cooked. If you eat food that has swelled up, your pocket-book will swell up all year.

People decorate their HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN houses with mistletoe and kiss under this decoration at midnight - it will bring good luck and loyal love to the family! Holly used for Christmas decorations should be saved to keep the house from lightning.

The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas Day HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN. This is the time to visit relatives or friends. If you want you may certainly sit at home and watch TV.

New Year's Day is less popular in Britain than Christmas. But in Scotland it is the biggest festival of the year. Almost all the shops and factories are closed HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN in Scotland on New Year's Day and people enjoy themselves.

There are some other public holidays in Britain: Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday and Summer Bank Holiday. Public holidays in Britain are called bank holidays, because the banks as well as a lot of HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN offices and shops are closed.

Besides public holidays there are some special festivals in Great Britain. Some of them have originated from ancient times. On the 5th of November, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I. He didn't succeed. Guy HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN Fawkes was taken to the Tower of London and the King's men cut off his head. Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They make a dummy, мейд of straw and old clothes. This dummy is called a "guy", because Fawkes' name was Guy. Children HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN can be seen in the streets saying, "Penny for the guy." Then they buy fireworks and let them off.

Some ceremonies are rather formal, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, the State Opening of Parliament.

In the streets of London one can see a group HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN of horsemen wearing shining helmets, red uniforms, black boots and long white gloves. These men are Life Guards. Their duty is to guard the king or the queen of Great Britain and the most important guests of the country.

Every year a large number of ancient HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN motor-cars drive from London to Brighton, sixty miles away from the capital. Some of these cars are very funny. This competition is a colorful demonstration. Drivers are dressed in the clothes of those times. It is not a typical race, as most of the cars come to Brighton only in HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN the evening or don't come at all.

In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of the people than in other countries. Foreigners can be struck by the number of customs and peculiarities in English life. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN carefully follow them.

Write down a composition about holidays and traditions in Russia (15-20 sentences).

TOPIC: Environmental problems

Answer the questions.

1. What environmental problems do you know?

2. How can we protect nature?

3. What can we do to make our planet cleaner?

2. Read the text and fill in the chart.

What are the problems HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN? What do they damage?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There are a lot of problems facing people on the planet Earth nowadays. The most urgent problem is an ecological one.

Interrelations between man and the biosphere are complex. Man like any other living organism depends for his life on what the biosphere provides: water, oxygen HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN, food, shelter. On the other хэнд all sorts of human activity make the environment unhealthy. The main problems are: air pollution, water pollution, acid rains, safety of nuclear and hydraulic power stations, radioactive and other poisonous materials, disposal of waste and others. Let’s consider some of HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN them.

Car engines burn gasoline, factories burn fuels. All these gases pollute the air. The biggest problem is ozone, formed from hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Ozone can age our lungs, making us more susceptible to dangerous diseases, including cancer. Some factories produce liquid wastes and dump them into ri­vers and HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN lakes. This problem includes oil pollution which causes great damage to coasts and wild life.

Acid rains damage forests, poison rivers and lakes, make them
lifeless.

Safety of nuclear and hydraulic power stations is another acute problem. Public anxiety has grown particularly after the Chernobyl disaster. Radioactive and other HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN poisonous materials present health and safety problems.

As the population of large cities continues to grow, the pro­blem of Industrial and communal waste disposal has become urgent. In more than a hundred towns and cities the concentration of harmful substances in the air and water is over 10 times the HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN admissible level.

In recent years people have become more sensitive towards the environment. Still more public organizations and unofficial movements have been established. In 1987 a "Green Peace"' public commission was set up. Its main goal is to combine the pe­ople's efforts in the struggle for peace and HOLIDAYS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN nature conservation.

Russia is cooperating in this field with the USA, Canada, Finland, and Norway. The other way out of ecological problems is to turn te­chnology to the construction of healthy environment. We must leave our planet better for future generations than it is now.


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